How the Flint water crisis has impacted US lead-pipe removal efforts

This article is part of the “Equity and Infrastructure: How Infrastructure Influences Social Equity,” series that is being published by Civil Engineering magazine and the Civil Engineering Source. 

The water crisis that rocked Flint, Michigan, several years ago turned a once mighty industrial city — the cradle of General Motors — into a tragedy, a city that other cities didn’t want to emulate. And while the crisis impacted the entire city, many of the affected neighborhoods were predominantly Black and low-income (according to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city is 54.1% Black, and 38.8% of the city’s residents live

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